Introduction to C++ Template Functions


C++ provides two major mechanisms for code reuse: inheritance and templates. Templates can become complex so we are going to use function templates as a gentle introduction. Generally speaking, a function applies the same algorithm to different data types.


  1. Templates are a core language feature for code reuse.
  2. Templates functions vary the argument type while using the same code.
  3. Write several concrete versions of your function and debug them before trying to create a .
  4. Do not provide both template functions and standard functions with the same name - it is confusing.
  5. Template allows you to provide different implementations for different types.

Getting Started

With any kind of templates, it is best practice to write multiple concrete examples before creating the template.After creating these concrete examples, you look at what is common between them and what differs.

Concrete Functions

We are going to create a function that writes both the data type and the value to standard output. We will call the function logger(). Let's start with a version of logger() that works with int .

We now add a version that works for double :

Calling the Concrete Functions

Let's call these logger()  functions and see what the output looks like. Here is our main() :

Our output is:

 Create the Template Function

Looking at the concrete logger()  versions for type int  and type  double , we can see a pattern. Ironically, it is best to follow a pattern when making a function template:


First, notice the line template <typename T>  that is on a line by itself. This is not required by the language but is a common practice to make templates more readable. The keyword  template   alerts the compiler that this is a template and then the angle brackets hold the type (or types) that are generic.

typename T  specifies the type that will be varied. This is called the parameterizing type. Note that you may also see this specified as class T , which before C++03, was the only way. While class is still acceptable, I prefer the keyword typename as it has a single meaning in C++, unlike class .

Calling the Template Functions

We erase the concrete definitions of logger()  for types int  and double . Do we have to make any changes to the calling code? Well, we could by using angle brackets after the template function name to explicitly specify the parameterizing type like this:

However, for function templates (and not for class templates), the compiler can perform what is called type deduction, which means that the compiler determines the parameterizing types on its own when unambiguous. In this case, we can drop the parameterizing type with the angle brackets.

Keeping the angle brackets tell the compiler that this is a parameterized template function but leaves it up to the compiler to determine the parameterizing type. In well written programs, you do not even need the angle brackets:

Why did I say, "In a well written program"? Well, it is a bad idea to include an overloaded function with the same name as a template function. This is because function templates do not participate in function overloading. Having a template function with the same name as a function or overloaded function is a recipe for confusion.

However the template function gets its parameterizing type(s), you say that the template function was specialized by providing the type. Templates only generate code when they are specialized. If a template is never specialized, no code for that template is ever generated.

Explicit Specialization

You can also perform what is called explicit specialization by providing the definition for a parameterized template function. This allows you to alter how the template function behaves for specific classes.

What if we wanted to use logger()  on a std::string ?

The output is not what we expect:

Your output may differ somewhat. It depends on how std::string  is defined for your C++ compiler. In any case, it is not the std::string=Template functions  that we expected.

How can we handle this? We can tell the template function to use different code for std::string  by specializing the template function on std::string . After the template is declare, we provide a specialization for std::string :


Note that the angle brackets after the template keyword are empty.  Also note the added empty angle brackets after the template function name. Finally, note that we pass a concrete class in the argument.

Why Specialize?

By specializing a template function, we can cause different behavior for different types. There are often good reasons for this, like handling pointers differently than value types. Make sure not to create surprises for clients of your code: the specialization should be in the spirit of the template function.


  1. Template functions are a mechanism of code reuse.
  2. Write several concrete versions of your function before trying to templatize it.
  3. Do not also provide non-template versions of the function as this causes confusion.
  4. Specialization allows you to provide different implementations for different types.

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